Canadian Wildland Fire Information System

FBP Fuel Type Descriptions

FBP Fuel Types

C1 - Spruce–Lichen Woodland

C1 - Spruce–Lichen Woodland

This fuel type is characterized by open, parklike black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) stands occupying well-drained uplands in the subarctic zone of western and northern Canada. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) are minor associates in the overstory. Forest cover occurs as widely spaced individuals and dense clumps. Tree heights vary considerably, but bole branches (live and dead) uniformly extend to the forest floor and layering development is extensive. Accumulation of woody surface fuel is very light and scattered. Shrub cover is exceedingly sparse. The ground surface is fully exposed to the sun and covered by a nearly continuous mat of reindeer lichens (Cladonia spp.), averaging 3-4 cm in depth above mineral soil.

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